Thursday, May 21, 2020
WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s status has changed dramatically over the years in the U.S. When the nation was first established, women had no rights. They were not even considered legal citizens until 1868. Their role was being Ã¢â¬Å"in the home,Ã¢â¬ also known as cooking, cleaning, etc. They had absolutely no power. Women have fought for everything they have achieved in the past and continue to fight today for gender equality. The 1970s were the main part of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s revolution; Title IX was born. Before this was made, there was a lot of discrimination in sports. Female athletes first became noticed by the nation during World War II. Since the baseball players were away fighting, women stepped up and formed the All-American Girls Baseball League in 1943. After the war, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s sports organizations continued to grow. Women became curious of what else they could accomplish in the world. The push for their rights truly began during the Civil Rights Movements in the 1960s. Title IX was signed in 1972 by President Nixon. Before Title IX, funding for womenÃ¢â¬â¢s athletics were practically nonexistent at most coeducational colleges and universities. Due to the lack of support, only sixteen percent of college athletes were women. Title IX has increased this number to forty percent. Although the law has progressed the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights movement, it took a few years to develop its reputation. The first time the words Ã¢â¬Å"Title IXÃ¢â¬ were heard nationally, was in 1976. The New York Times wrote an articleShow MoreRelatedThe Women s Rights Movement1547 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesFlorida SouthWestern State College The WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights Movement What was the significance of the Seneca Falls Convention on the WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights Movement? Jennifer Flores AMH2010 Mr. Stehlin 16 November 2015 The WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights Movement began in 1848 with the first assembly of women and men gathering to discuss the civil, social, and other conditions of women. The Seneca Falls Convention was the start of the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s movement. The two women who organized this event were Lucretia Mott andRead MoreAfrican American Women During The Civil Rights Era942 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Civil Rights Era, which took place during the years of 1955 till 1968, was indeed the movement that gave African Americans the push to achieve their first major accomplishments of the decade. The Civil Rights Movements goals were to break down the walls of legal segregation in public places, achieve equality and justice for African Americans, and to help make African Americans become more self-conscious when standing for all their interest. This movement not only benefited men, but it also benefitedRead MoreWomen s Rights During The Civil War1557 Words Ã |Ã 7 Pages the American Civil War came at a key time to change the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights landscape. The period leading up to the Civil War, however, did not see a society ready to change, and thus, little work was done towards the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights movement. According to WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Civil War History author Mary Elizabeth Massey, womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights activists before the Civil War were small in numbers, but opinionated (qtd in Hall 1-2). Dogmatic womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights activists were stuck in a world that deemed women as inferior, whichRead MoreEssay on The Civil War: A WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Time to Shine1334 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesThe Civil War was a defining point for the United States. The people of America were forced to step back and reevaluate what defined the American Citizen: a person with the rights and privilege to cast a vote for what or who he believes in. The key word here is Ã¢â¬Å"heÃ¢â¬ . The Civil War brought freedom and rights to African Americans, yet it had no directly positive effect on womenÃ¢â¬â¢s right s. While African Americans were seeing their lives and futures change, to many observers the womenÃ¢â¬â¢s rights movementRead MoreThe Feminist Movement1137 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesalways been a common belief that women exist inferior to men. The Bible demonstrates that God made the first woman Eve from the rib of Adam and God Ã¢â¬Å"[does] not permit a woman to teach or to exercise authority over a man; rather, she is to remain quietÃ¢â¬ (1 Timothy 2:11-15). However, understanding their important role in the family and society and feeling tired of being undertreated by men, women finally stood up for themselves. In the 19th century, the Feminist Movement emerged and completely changedRead MoreEssay about Frq Analysis1138 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRuhani Malik Period 4 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s HW FRQ Questions Due by April 26-27, 2012 Be sure to provide a strong and specific thesis statement with a nice introduction to your essay. Also be sure to provide names, dates, book titles, court cases, statistics and any and all other relevant facts you can think of to support your answer. Staple this sheet to the front of your essay and be sure to follow the formatting rules discussed for previous FRQÃ¢â¬â¢s. 1. With respect to THREE of the following,Read MoreThe Critical Race Theory ( Crt )921 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pages The Critical Race Theory (CRT) began as a form of legal studies by liberals and turned into a movement. The movement is a collection of activists and scholars interested in studying and transforming the relationship between race, racism, and power. The movement walks a similar path as conventional civil rights studies; however, they look at an even broader perspective, such as economics, history, context, and even self-interest. Ã¢â¬Å"Race, Gender, and Social class are all common interests in our AmericanRead MoreRoaring 20 s Vs. Swinging1072 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesRoaring 20Ã¢â¬â¢s vs. Swinging 60Ã¢â¬â¢s Taking a look back in time, so much has changed, especially in the time period between the 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s. The 1920Ã¢â¬â¢s and 1960Ã¢â¬â¢s are two decades that have really defined the United StatesÃ¢â¬â¢ culture. From flappers to hippies, jazz music to rock, and Civil Rights movements, these two decades have helped shape the beliefs and rights we have today. The 1920s were an age of social and political change that would change the face of history in the United States. The 1960sRead MoreThe During The 19th Century902 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe events in the 19th century had changed the lives of women and blacks completely. It was an age where the impact of the industrial revolution caused a sharp differentiation between the gender roles, especially of the upper and middle classes. In 19th century, appeared the events such as African American Civil Rights Movement, Civil War, and The WomenÃ¢â¬â¢s Rights Movement had put women and blacksÃ¢â¬â¢ role to a new l evel. During the Civil War, women stepped out of their domestic domains to support the soldiersRead MoreSocial Changes During The 1960 S1254 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pages1960Ã¢â¬â¢s was a decade filled with change in the existing conditions of the social, political, and economic spectrums. These social changes involved challenges to the conservative status quo of the time. Parts that contributed to this social revolution were new developments in the Feminist Movement, the Civil Rights Movement, and a rebellious counterculture. The political changes of this time period were embodied by the continuation and extension of the Vietnam War, new laws pertaining to civil rights
Wednesday, May 6, 2020
On June 19, 1982, Vincent Chin was murdered after his bachelor party in a hate crime driven by an outrage towards the Japanese auto industry misplaced onto himself (Embracing). Neither of his murderers ever spent a day in prison, despite appeals made in court (Embracing). Vincent Chin and his case still matters to Americans and should be made aware to the Wayne State faculty and students by the Filipino Student Society (FilSoc). Not necessarily every single person needs to be told directly by the FilSoc, but at least a small portion of the faculty and student body should become aware of the Vincent Chin case through FilSocÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts. Jerry Heron, the dean of the Irvin D. Reid Honors College at Wayne State University, gives a lecture toÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Multiple religious and labor organizations, as well as the Detroit chapter of the National Association for the Advancement of Colored people were fighting for ChinÃ¢â¬â¢s justice (Embracing). The Detroit City Coun cil also spoke out for the Chin case, showing how widely this issue influenced DetroitÃ¢â¬â¢s past, and therefore DetroitÃ¢â¬â¢s present (Embracing). The murder of Vincent ChinÃ¢â¬â¢s influence also had a nation-wide influence on the Asian American civil rights movement. Never before had such an influence from one event had such an impact on uniting Asian Americans. Many incidents relevant to Asian American history are taught in schools, such as anti-Chinese legislation, Japanese Internment camps, or even the multiple wars against Asian countries such as the Philippines, Korea, or Vietnam (Wu). However, none of them caused a pan-Asian movement like the Vincent Chin case was able to, and the Vincent Chin case isnÃ¢â¬â¢t taught in schools (Wu). The Vincent Chin case united Asian Americans from multi-ethnic background and gave them something to rally against- the killing of innocent Asian Americans (Wu). In a brief, informal survey the author took of her classmates, not a singl e person knew about Vincent Chin. There are even members of FilSoc who are unaware of Vincent Chin and how his death influenced both Detroit and Asian Americans nationwide. The near invisibility of the Vincent Chin case is and should be alarming. Great numbers of students and faculty are interacting with
string(171) " to the law of conservation of mass and design a controlled experiment in which they attempt to explain data and confirm or refute a hypothesis on the basis of this data\." To identify the parts of a chemical equation. Students need to identify subscribe pets, coefficients, reactants, products, chemical formulas, and chemical symbols 2. To appreciate that scientific discoveries are often the result of inquiry. We will write a custom essay sample on The Law of Conservation of Mass or any similar topic only for you Order Now 3. To distinguish between an element, a compound, and a mixture (and between heterogeneous and homogeneous mixtures) 4. To balance a chemical equation in order to prove that the Law of Conservation n of Mass works quantitatively as well as conceptually 5. To respect that chemicals can be both helpful and harmful safety must be a p rarity and the intention of scientists can play a large role in determining if chemicals do ended hurt or help humanity 6. To prove experimentally the Law of Conservation of Mass that matter is not car dated or destroyed in a chemical reaction Standards NJ CORE CURRICULUM (SCIENCE) STANDARD 5. 2 (science and society) All stud .NET will develop an understanding of how people of various cultures have control etude to the advancement of science and technologyÃ¢â¬â¢, and how major discoveries and even TTS have advanced science and technology. You can either print o t the story or tell the story in your own words. This lesson corresponds with slides 14 on the pop written presentation. Slide 4 contains a short video (approximately 5 minutes) in which h the work of Lavisher is discussed. Be sure to mention the connection between his scientist fix work and the necessity of the work for Paris at this time in history. Why did he begin this pr Eject? And similar questions can be used to place this work in its proper historical context. B. Introduce the law of conservation of mass experiment. Be sure to emphasis zee the purpose of the experiment, mainly, to serve as a comparison to the work of Lavisher. C. Students should perform the activity. You may want to have students perform ram part A in day 1 ND save part B for day 2 unless you have a nice block of time. D. Following the conclusion of parts A and B, as well as the conclusion queueÃ¢â¬â¢s ins, discuss the conclusion questions. Specifically, spend time on number 7 and 8. Number 7 asks students to draw connections between LavaliereÃ¢â¬â¢s work and what they have done. Number r 8 asks students to brainstorm ideas for other law of conservation of mass experiments. This is is unification because students will be choosing one of these ideas and designing an experiment lat err on. Lesson 2 Instructions for Teachers: Tell the story of LavaliereÃ¢â¬â¢s work with combustion. Make the connection bet en science and mathematics. Precise measurements were not common until Lavisher m dad them so. Observations, estimations, and generalizations were commonly found in ice once investigations. If you are planning on handing out the story rather than tell it be sure to explain what is meant by call. Powering slides 57 pertain to the connection between the law of conservation of mass and math, namely balancing equations. Slide 7 is a short video (approximately 5 minutes) in which balancing is explained as well as a short e explanation on naming compounds. Math teachers can teach balancing equations. This ca n be done in edition to the time that we spend balancing equations in science or the mat h teacher may take full responsibility for the balancing of equations. To further explain call a demonstration may be valuable. You can burn magma enemies and allow students to make observations, qualitatively and quantitatively. 2. First, introduce coefficients and subscripts and explain how they can help to s how us how the law of conservation of mass is present in every chemical reaction. Balance a simple equation, the formation of water is a good one to start with since most studs ants are familiar with the chemical formula for water. After 1 or more examples have students attempt to balance equations based on level of comfort with balancing. Have an answer key posted in the room so that students can see that they have correctly balanced the aqua actions. There are many websites dedicated to balancing equations. I usually have my more am obvious students Google search a good site and write it on the whiteboard so that pee people who need extra practice or more of a challenge know where to go. 3. The selfsameness rubric can be completed by students at the end of this less son or at the end of this minutia. Suggest completing it at the end of the unit since you m y introduce more equations within the context of the lessons thus allowing students audit IANAL opportunities to improve their understanding. Lesson 3 Instructions for Teachers Begin this lesson by telling the story of LavaliereÃ¢â¬â¢s role in discovering oxygen. Be sure to mention the role played by Joseph Priestley. This is a good opportunity to disc us how technology, or the lack of technology played a role in the dispute regarding car edit for the discovery. Language barriers, difficulty in traveling far distances, and slow communication definitely played a role. Slides 810 should accompany this less son. Slide 10 contains a short video narrated by Bill Nee in which he discusses, with a m ember of the Chemical Heritage Foundation, the story of the work of Lavisher and his role discovering oxygen. Joseph Priestley role in this discovery is also mentioned. Have students refer back to our first law of conservation of mass experiment, specifically conclusion question number 8. Students will now decide on a scientific quests on that relates to the law of conservation of mass and design a controlled experiment in which they attempt to explain data and confirm or refute a hypothesis on the basis of this data. You read "The Law of Conservation of Mass" in category "Law" I live that students should be encouraged to choose a question that allows for a lengthy study, requiring multiple measurements. This will reinforce the concepts pert air-ling to the law of conservation of mass and allow you, the teacher, to draw connections between the law and your other chemistry topics. The final activity is a reflection pertaining to a science demonstration. The bur inning of paper ties in nicely with many aspects of LavaliereÃ¢â¬â¢s work. See the attachment and ask students to discuss, in words, the similarities, or differences that they notice. This can be completed in class or it can be a homework assignment. A homework assign meet may be more appropriate if you feel that students need time to review the story of the e law of conservation of mass that you have told. Towards this end it is also useful to post your notes of the story on your aboard or whatever form of communication you ha eve with students. While I have dedicated the story of Lavatories work to some of his experiment s there is another story that can be told. Lavisher, who founded a business whose prim responsibility was collection of taxes, was beheaded during the French Revolt Zion. This sad story can be told in science of course, or it can take place in humanities (h story) or in language arts (English). The stow of Lavisher can tie in to the American and F ranch Revolutions for history class. In English class it can be told within the scope of excerpts or entire books that tell stories relating to revolutions. An example might be while e reading Charles DickensÃ¢â¬â¢ A Tale of Two Cities. The language arts connections offers the teacher an opportunity to focus on the irony that with the beheading of Lavisher the Free inch people removed a person who had arguably helped them a great deal and who wool d most likely have made many more significant contributions to the life of Parisian. Background Information A: the Antoine Lavisher lived and worked in the 18 century, during the time of the French revolution (Grey, 1982). Lavisher is often referred to as the father of modern chemistry (Discovery Education, 2005). LavaliereÃ¢â¬â¢s first experiment to lead him toward the e discovery of the law of conservation of mass was part of an experiment to study the CLC manliness of the drinking water in Paris (Culled, 2005). Lavisher boiled drinking water. According to Culled (2005) the first part of this experiment involved cleaning a glass flask, drying it, and then carefully weighing it. Next, a precisely assured sample of water was poured into the flask and for 101 straight day s heated. The water was heated so that it just reached the point of boiling. Eventually, solid sediment formed on the glass walls of the flask. Culled adds that after weighing the flash k Lavisher concluded that the weight of the flask, the water, and the solid sediment was exactly the same as the mass of the flask and the water with which he started this experiment. If anally, Lavisher removed the water and found that the mass of the water had not chi engaged. However, the mass of the flask and the solid sediment was equal to the mass of the origin anal clean flask. At this point in the experiment Culled (2005) tells us that Lavisher concluded t hat due to the longer exposure to high temperatures the flask some part of the flask muss t have turned into a new substance, although mass had not been lost. It is worth noting that in his time, many, if not all scientists believed that the e earth was comprised of the four elements of earth, fire, air, and water (Culled, 2005). Du ring the aforementioned experiment Lavisher wondered if water could be converted t o earth, which at the time, Culled states, included any solid substance. Because the mass oft he water in the experiment did not change Lavisher concluded that the answer was that no, water was not converted into earth. A less perceptive scientist would have concluded others sis due to the presence of the particulate. It was his attention to the mass and to exactness in measurement that allow De him to conclude that contrary to what others were espousing, the water did not Chain GE. Grey (1982) adds that the mass of the particulate was exactly equal to the mass that was missing when Lavisher measured the weight of the dried flask at the end of the 101 days. L bolster included that part of the glass flask had undergone a change due to constant t exposure to high temperatures. Grey adds that this experiment was also significant because SE it lead Lavisher to conclude that Ã¢â¬Å"just looking at an experiment wasnÃ¢â¬â¢t enough to fin d out what was really going onÃ¢â¬ (p. 40). This experiment, notes Culled (2005) was significant n tot only because it lead Lavisher toward the law of conservation of mass but also beck cause lead Lavisher to the realization that precise measurements are critical in experiment notation, something that most scientists did not deem a necessity at the time. Many of LavaliereÃ¢â¬â¢s experiments, including the water experiment, involved co marring the weight of reactants to the weight of products. In other words, comparing the mass Of the substances he was experimenting with before a reaction to what he had after a reaction. Due to his emphasis on precise measurements Lavisher was able to show that the difference in weight between reactants and products was always small (Culled, 2005). Whew n he initially started these experiments Lavisher was not certain if these tiny differences in mass were due to his inability to make more exact measurements or if matter was indeed bee g created or destroyed, a view that many scientists of the time thought was possible (Grey, 1982). Read about the science of alchemy if you are interested in how and why scientists o f the time believed that this was possible. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s worth noting that Lavisher was eventually able to conclude that matter is not able to be created or destroyed in part because he asked the question, a simple queueÃ¢â¬â¢s n actually, concerning the missing mass. Grey, (1982) notes that Ã¢â¬Å"He believed there were lots of questions about the world all around him that needed answers. He wanted to look for things no one else had ever foundÃ¢â¬ (p. 26). As we learn more regarding the stories be hind science discoveries, large and simple, we will notice that almost every one involves in acquisitiveness on the part of the scientist followed by an experimental procedure designed t o answer the question, but it all starts with the question. Background Information B: LavaliereÃ¢â¬â¢s next area of interest was combustion. By the time Lavisher turned to the question of combustion he was well known for his emphasis on precise mess ornaments (Culled, 2005). This was helpful in experiments in which he was attempting to determine if mass had indeed been created, destroyed, or remained the same. LavaliereÃ¢â¬â¢s combustion experiments consisted of burning metals and compared weights of the metal s before and after heating (Mechanical, 2004). When Lavisher burned sulfur, tin, lead, and phosphorus he found that the m ass of the metal actually increased. However, he also found that when burned in a closed flask the mass of the air inside the flask decreased by the exact amount that the metal increased (G ere, 1982). When Lavisher heated the scales, metal bonded with air due to combustion) he found that air was given off as the mass of the metal decreased while the mass of the air in t e container increased by the same amount. Mathematics, which provides quantitative data, allowed Lavisher and later, tot her scientists, to prove that matter was not created or destroyed (Tab, 2004). The word co inspiration means that nothing has been lost. After Lavisher, scientists began to conclude e that in an isolated system (for example, a closed flask) mass is a constant (Johnson, 200 8). We know that a constant does not change. If we are able to find the mass of the Ã¢â¬Å"system mÃ¢â¬ before anything reacts we can compare it to the mass Of the System after the reaction and the difference should be zero, according to Lavisher. Johnson (2008) notes that Lavisher was the first to conclude that the total ma as of a system must be equal to the mass obtained in the beginning of the experiment, regard idles of changes in states of matter. Johnson adds that in France, the law of conservation of m ass is still known as LavaliereÃ¢â¬â¢s law. We will attempt to prove experiment with chemical r actions in an open system as well as a closed system and yes, we will use mathematics to a assist us in doing so! As scientists learned more about elements and compounds (again, thanks to Lavisher) they ere able to further explain, in more detail, what is indeed happening in chew magical reactions in terms of elements and compounds being rearranged. Today we know that this accounting is done through balanced equations. Balancing chemical equations is a techno queue employed by scientists in which simple, and sometimes complicated, mathematics IS use d to demonstrate the specific ratios of the substances involved in a chemical aqua Zion. We will also partake in the balancing Of equations and I think that you will find it inter sting to see that what Lavisher, the pioneer, first hypothesized over 200 years ago, because e he dared to ask a question, is now being analyzed and proven in our middle school science e class. Background Information C: Lavisher is credited with discovering the element oxygen. He arrived at the co inclusion that oxygen must exist as a result of his interest in combustion. Prior to Lavisher, scientists such as Joseph Priestly who was based in London, had found that when something burned, like metal, the weight of the metal call would be greater than the mass of the origin IANAL substance (Mechanical, 2004). This Priestley explained, was due to the presence of a most absence that was thought to be found in any substance that burns, called p Hollister (Grey, 1982). Scientists reasoned that the added mass (to the callÃ¢â¬â¢) after something b runner was attributed to phlogiston. Grey notes that at this time scientists were aware that t the mass of the original piece of metal also decreased, which lead them to the conclusion, alb tit falsely, that phlogiston was transferred when something burns. While most scientists were satisfied with the explanation, others such as Olivia sire found a problem. When metals were burned the mass of the burned metal (called call ) actually increased (Mechanical, 2004). How to cite The Law of Conservation of Mass, Essays
Sunday, April 26, 2020
Exports and imports constituted 14 percent and 11 percent of GAP respectively in 2009. These proportions have more than doubled since 1975. The United States trades more with industrially advanced economies although the U. S. Trade with Mexico is substantial. The U. S. s most important trading partner quantitatively is Canada, buying 20 percent Of our exports and providing 15 percent of our imports in 2009. China was the leading export country in 2009, surpassing Germany which used to hold that position.The order is: Belgium, Canada, Japan, United States. Improvement in transportation technology; Improvement in communication technology; and Decline in tariffs ; other trade impediments. Question 5 If the European Euro were to decline in value (depreciate) in the foreign exchange market, would it be easier or harder for the French to sell their wine in the United States? Suppose you were planning a trip to Paris. How would depreciation of the Euro change the dollar cost of your trip?ANSWER: If the European Euro declines in value, it means that Americans can receive more euros for each dollar. We will write a custom essay sample on International Trade and United States or any similar topic specifically for you Do Not WasteYour Time HIRE WRITER Only 13.90 / page Therefore, they do not need as many dollars to pay the Euro price Of a bottle Of French wine, so the quantity demanded would rise and it should be easier to sell French wine in the U. S. Likewise, the Euro depreciation would make it less costly for Americans to travel in France, since the dollar would now buy more euros (assuming that prices inside France have not risen to entirely offset the depreciation of the Euro).Question 6 What measures do governments take to promote exports and restrict imports? Who benefits and who loses from protectionist policies? What is the net outcome for society? ANSWER: Governments promote exports by providing subsidies to export producers, which effectively lowers their costs and enables them to sell their products at lower prices on world markets. Subsidies enable export firms or Industries to compete against other nations, but the fact the subsidy was necessary for this competition means that the most efficient use of resources is not taking place.Restriction of imports can be accomplished by protective tariffs, by import quotas, and by non-tariff barriers such as licensing requirements, unreasonable quality standards, and unnecess ary import procedures. The benefits of protectionist policies are to the industry that has to compete on world markets either with its exports or against imports. Even this may be a short-run benefit, because industries that are protected may come so inefficient and outmoded that they are unable to stay afloat even with the protection in the long run.There may also be some political benefits as those protected groups have a strong self interest in this protection and are vocal opponents of free trade for their industries, whereas the benefits of free trade are more diffuse and the benefits to any single group of voters is less noticeable. The costs of protectionist policies are more widespread. The costs of protectionist policies arise because resources are not being used as efficiently as they might be under free trade.WTFO oversees trade agreements reached by member nations and arbitrates trade disputes among them. (b) The EX. is a trading bloc of 25 European countries who have agreed to abolish tariffs and import quotas on most products and have liberalized the movement of labor and capital within the EX.. (c) The Euro is the common currency that is used by 12 of the original 15 EX. countries. As of 2010, the number has grown to 16 countries. (d) NONFAT is a trade bloc made up of the United States, Canada, and Mexico whose purpose is to reduce tariffs and other trade barriers among the three countries.
Wednesday, March 18, 2020
Detention of Immigrants Introduction This paper aims at analyzing the plight of refugees in various detention camps in the US, and Australia. It is factual that refugees go through difficulties in the camps since immigration officials harass them to accept illegal pacts and raw deals (Bagshaw Paul 2004, p. 41).Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Detention of Immigrants specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Immigration officials force refugees to accept their pleas such as extending sexual favors. Some immigrants report that immigration officials are unwelcoming and use unacceptable language when addressing them. This paper aims at uncovering the injustices meted out to refugees in the US and Australia. The main purpose of the paper is to expose the injustices that refugees face in their daily lives. In society, each person has the right to exercise his or her freedom. Detention facilities interfere with the rights of detainees because they force t hem to support illegal deals in the detention facilities. The detention facilities should support refugees emotionally while they solve their problems through legal means. However, the detention facilities go against the acceptable codes of conduct by taking advantage of the plight of refugees. Through this paper, the world will appreciate the fact that refugees have a right, just like other citizens. Background Immigrants face a number of challenges in the United States and Australia. Australia and the US are two countries preferred by refugees who run away from political and economic hardships (Cohen 2004, p. 467). Refugees fleeing to the US and Australia are mostly Africans who believe that economic conditions would favor them there. The two countries face serious challenges in ensuring that their borders are safe. On the other hand, the countries are expected to assist refugees in need of commodities such as food, water, shelter, and security. The United Nations High Commission for Refugees is an agency that was created to help displaced individuals in the third world and other parts of the world. In 1951, there were an approximated 1.5 billion refugees in the world. The figure went up in 2009 to 43.3 billion, including approximated 15.2 billion displaced individuals, 983000 refuge seekers, and 27.1 internally displaced people. People run away from their homes due to natural disasters, political insecurity, and harsh economic conditions. Current studies show that at least five factors encourage people to run away from their home countries to either Australia or the US. In Europe and Africa, individuals migrate to the two countries because of wage differences between the home countries and the two foreign countries.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More These factors are commonly referred to as the pull factors because they attract people to migrate to the US or Australia. The US and Australia have experienced retarded growth implying in population to an extent that the two countries do not have sufficient labor. Hiking salaries and wages is one of the strategies employed to attract the global labor force (Evans 2007, p. 73). Another factor that forces people to move to greener pastures is the population growth in the home country. Some countries have witnessed a massive population growth in the recent past, which forces individuals to look for space elsewhere. The US and Australia are preferred because the standards of living are better in the two countries. This factor falls under the push factors because it puts pressure on an individual to move (Cernea 2006, p. 76). In the last twenty to thirty years, some countries have been forced to come up with policies aimed at discouraging population growth due to strained resources. China and India are some of the countries that discourage population growth because the government is unable to provide adequate services to the larger population. In such countries, individuals prefer shifting to foreign countries perceived to be having favorable conditions of living. The US and Australia are the first destinations for individuals. As people shift to Australia and the US, many are encouraged to do so after noticing that their friends and relatives do well in the foreign countries. However, they do not understand that foreigners are exposed to torture and unfair treatment in the detention facilities. Statistics show that about sixty percent of those migrating to the US and Australia are men while only forty percent are female. Seventy percent of immigrants are adults while twenty percent are children. This shows that people migrate to these two countries in search of jobs and business opportunities owing to the population pressure at home countries. In the detention facilities, young men are the majority implying that the types of abuses are mostly related to viola tion of employment acts (Klin 2006, p. 19). Issue Development Local Reaction A report by the American Civil Liberties Union observed that immigrants are subjected to unfair treatment in the detention facilities in Georgia. The organization undertook a study on four main detention facilities in the US. One of the detention facilities was Stewart Detention Center, which is one of the largest detention facilities in the US. The organization claimed that the facility violates immigration policies yet the government is reluctant to act. Immigrants are housed in a prisonlike facility whereby their human and civil rights are not provided.Advertising We will write a custom essay sample on Detention of Immigrants specifically for you for only $16.05 $11/page Learn More Through the report, the officials of Georgia came up with strict immigration policies that would allow the security forces to conduct frequent assessment of the detention facilities. The security agen cies would question immigrants regarding their living conditions in the detention facilities. The government has so far enacted policies allowing the department of homeland security to deport illegal immigrants. Illegal immigrants are victims of unfair treatment in the detention facilities. Private organizations operate substantial detention facilities in the US. The human rights groups have urged the government to deregister the private organizations operating the detention facilities on grounds of abuse. The civil groups argue that most of the detention facilities are in the remote areas and the facilities are of poor quality (Klin 2000, p. 99). The American Civil Liberties Union conducted an extensive research that lasted for three years, managing to interview sixty-eight detainees and a sizeable number of relatives and friends. The study established that detainees face serious problems because their rights are violated. They are subjected to poor sanitation, inadequate medical a ttention, inappropriate mental healthcare, and instances of verbal abuse. It is established that those in authority use their power to exploit detainees in the camp. Some detainees claimed that officials used vulgar language and racial discrimination was rampant in the facilities. Some detainees are even subjected to physical violence, which is a violation of the right to life. At the Stewart detention facility, one detainee reported that a guard assaulted him one evening and injured him seriously. The detainee lost both eyes, but the officials of the detention facility are yet to take action against the guard (Lilly 2007, p. 101). Each person is entitled to free medical care, but detainees at Australian detention facilities are never allowed to undergo regular medical checkups. Detention facilities in the US rarely employ a doctor who would attend to emergencies at night. In government operated detention facilities, a doctor is usually provided, but medical facilities are not enoug h to cater for the medical needs of all detainees. In an interview with one female detainee, the report by the civil liberties groups claimed that the woman was left to suffer for hours before being taken to hospital. Even after identifying that the woman needed urgent medical care, the officials were reluctant to act deviously to prevent unnecessary suffering and pain. In the American detention camps, the mental status of individuals is never taken into consideration because a psychiatrist is never provided to interrogate the detainees.Advertising Looking for essay on social sciences? Let's see if we can help you! Get your first paper with 15% OFF Learn More Immigrants are people with various problems since some might have lost their properties before deciding to seek refuge in the foreign countries. It is logical to take such individuals through frequent mental checkups to prevent cases of mental illness and psychological trauma. However, the detention facilities in the US are reluctant to help immigrants in recovering from mental stress (Mooney 2003, p. 6). Just like in the US, detention facilities in Australia force immigrants to sign orders of removal that permit banishment without due process. Officials threaten detainees with severe punishment in case they fail to sign orders of removal. In Australia, detention facilities violate the rights of detainees because they fail to release them even after the orders of removal are ready. Some detainees are segregated for refusing to cooperate with officials at the detention camps. Detainees found leaking information to the media are punished severely. Detainees face a serious challenge re garding communication. The detention facilities do not provide interpreters who would help them in understanding instructions. Human and civil groups have pressurized the government to come up with laws that would guarantee the safety of individuals at the detention camps. The American Civil Liberties Union demands that the government should take over the responsibility of taking care of detainees while their cases are handled by the courts. The union demands that private organizations should not be given the chance of harboring detainees (Mooney Jarrah 2004, p. 18). International Reaction The United Nations High Commission for Refugees has been vocal in protecting the rights of detainees in the US and Australia. The commission argues that states should protect refugees. However, the commission has been keen on ensuring that immigrants are not subjected to unfair treatment. The agency intervenes through application of international laws and standards (Balikci 2004, p. 67). One of t he laws invoked whenever there is a conflict is the 1951 convention, which talks about the status of refugees. The 1951 law states that a refugee is someone with various problems because he or she is outside his or her country. Therefore, the foreign country should always ensure that such an individual is treated in a humane way. In this regard, the detention facilities in Australia and the US are compelled to provide basic needs to detainees. The agency has always urged the detention facilities to ensure that immigrants are given adequate medical attention. The 1967 protocol is another law that relates to the status of refugees. The 1967 law demands that refugees should not be forced to return to their home countries because doing so would be endangering their lives (Sohne 2006, p. 21). The law demands further that the receiving countries must cooperate with the agency in ensuring that refugees enjoy their rights. This shows that refugees have a number of rights contained in the 19 67 law. Stewart detention camp is frequently urged to respect the 1967 law by providing medical care to detainees. In fact, article II of the 1967 law demands that detention facilities must cooperate with the agency in ensuring that refugee laws are followed. In 1984, a principle of non-refoulement was enacted, which reinforced the 1951 law on forceful deportation (Weiss 2003, p. 21). Through the agency, detention facilities have been forced to comply in order to avoid international condemnation. This is the reason why detainees are subjected to pain and suffering whenever they are found discussing their plight with the media. The agency works closely with the hosting countries to ensure that detainees are not subjected to untold suffering (Stavropoulou 1998, p. 34). However, the agency should strengthen its surveillance capacity to ensure that private organizations such as Stewart in the US comply with the law. Conclusion Detainees in the US and Australia go through a number of cha llenges. However, international organizations such as the United Nations High Commission for Refugees and local civil groups such as the American Civil Liberties Union have played a critical role in ensuring that detainees are treated fairly. In the US, civil rights groups have gone a notch higher to interview detainees in order to find a solution to their problem. Australian civil groups are yet to take action. However, the activities of the local and international institutions have not been successful given the fact that the issue of immigration is considered high politics. List of References Bagshaw, S Paul, D 2004, Protect or Neglect Toward a More Effective United Nations Approach to the Protection of Internally Displaced Persons, Brookings-SAIS Project on Internal Displacement, Washington. Balikci, A 2004, IDPs in Baku: A Qualitative Approach,Ã¢â¬â¢ Report prepared for World Bank, Canada, University of Montreal. Cernea, M 2006, Ã¢â¬Å"Development-induced and conflict-induced IDPs: bridging the research divideÃ¢â¬ , Forced Migration Review Special Issue, Vol. 3, no. 3, pp 76-89 Cohen, R 2004, Ã¢â¬Å"The Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement: An Innovation in International Standard SettingÃ¢â¬ Global Governance, Vol. 10, no. 1, pp 466-510 Evans, M 2007, Ã¢â¬Å"The Suffering is Too Great: Urban Internally Displaced Persons in the Casamance Conflict, SenegalÃ¢â¬ , Journal of Refugee Studies, Vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 60-85. Klin, W 2000 Ã¢â¬Å"Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement: AnnotationsÃ¢â¬ , Studies in Transnational Legal Policy, Vol. 1, no. 32, pp. 98-105 Klin, W 2006 Ã¢â¬Å"The future of the Guiding Principles on Internal Displacement,Ã¢â¬ Forced Migration Review Special Issue, Vol. 2, no. 3, pp 19-54. Lilly, D 2007, Camp management in IDP Collective Centers: The development of best practice, London, Camp Coordination Camp Management. Mooney, E Jarrah, B 2004, The Voting Rights of Internally Displaced Persons: The OSCE Region, Brookings Institution, Washington. Mooney, E 2003 Ã¢â¬Å"Introduction,Ã¢â¬ Forced Migration Review, Vol. 17, no. 4, pp 5-6. Sohne, SI 2006, Coping with Displacement: The Case of Internally Displaced Persons in Jinja, Uganda, The Fletcher School, Master of Arts in Law and Diplomacy Thesis. Stavropoulou, M 1998, Ã¢â¬Å"Will PeruÃ¢â¬â¢s displaced return? The forsaken people: Case studies of the internally displaced, The Brookings Institution, Washington. Weiss, FP 2003, Ã¢â¬Å"Looking beyond emergency response,Ã¢â¬ Forced Migration Review, Vol. 17, no. 3, pp 19-20.
Monday, March 2, 2020
How Millennials Can Save Millions for Retirement ItÃ¢â¬â¢s not fun to have to think about retirement savings in your 20s, but boy is it necessary. As inflation rates change and pensions become more rare, thinking about the future now is mandatory if you want to live comfortably without working in your mid-60s and beyond. Figure Out Your NeedsHere are 4 things you can do to figure out how much you need and how much youÃ¢â¬â¢re going to need to save to get that much.1. Estimate your future spendingEstimating your future spending is very similar to estimating your current spending. But take into account what expenses you will and will not have in the next few years. Will your mortgage get paid off? Will you have any long term health costs? Will you want to travel? Find an online calculator that can help you with your numbers.2. Estimate your retirement costsFind an online calculator also to help you calculate your retirement needs: your monthly expenses, savings goals, retirement age, etc.3. Make a planWrite down- even if only on a single sheet of paper- the goals youÃ¢â¬â¢ve established to help hold yourself accountable.4. Keep at itThings change. Life changes. Keep revisiting your plan to make sure itÃ¢â¬â¢s up-to-date and stays relevant enough to actually deliver what you need.Aim Sky High- Think MillionaireSo weÃ¢â¬â¢ve coveredÃ how to start thinking about saving and putting a solid plan in action. But we know you want to save lots. Millions, ideally, right? Here are 5 tips to get you started on the path to total financial comfort.1. Start ASAPThe earlier you start, the more youÃ¢â¬â¢ll end up with in your war chest. Imagine what would happen if you upped your monthly savings number over the course of your lifetime? The number really really adds up.2. Avoid debtBe smart by avoiding student loans and credit card debt. If you do accrue unavoidable debt, make sure to pay it off snappily as possible. YouÃ¢â¬â¢ll save a massive amount of money without even noticing. And always think through the fi nancial repercussions of major life decisions.3. Invest slowlyDonÃ¢â¬â¢t dump all your excess money into high risk/reward ventures. Slow and steady wins the race. Think 401k.4. Generate multiple incomesThe more money you bring in, the more youÃ¢â¬â¢ll save and the faster you can pay down your debts and start pumping any extra funds into your wealth creation.Ã 5. Live frugallyEvery time you go to spend money on something, rethink that cost in terms of other things. How many lattes turn into a trip to Paris? A new fall coat? How many fall coats turn into a Ferrari, over time? Cut as many corners as you can and youÃ¢â¬â¢ll be surprised at how quickly you gain financial control of your life and your future.
Saturday, February 15, 2020
Decriminalizing Drugs - Essay Example Illegal drug use continues in the US despite numerous and aggressive enforcement strategies and legislation aimed at illegal drug sales and use (Reuter 512). In addition to illegal drugs, the rate of prescription drug misuse and addiction continues to rise, with Oxycontin being the most common of these drugs (Grau et al. 169). Regardless of whether the drugs are legal or illegal, drug use and addiction has many direct and indirect effects on society including health costs, crime rates, incarceration, rates, and high costs of enforcement and legislation (Reuter 514). However, as evidenced by the steady increase in drug use, current attempts at drug control do not seem to have any significant effect and are apparently not effective, making decriminalization a more effective alternative. An Argument against Decriminalizing or Legalizing Drugs In the article, Ã¢â¬Å"Against the Legalization of Heroin,Ã¢â¬ de Marneffe presents his argument as to why the United States should not legaliz e or decriminalize illegal drugs (34-40). The first reason he presents against the decriminalization or legalization of illegal drugs in the US is that it would surely lead to an increase in their use (34). While this premise is based solely on speculation and assumption, and not based on facts or evidence, it is the argument most commonly used by individuals opposing drug decriminalization or legalization in the US. De Marneffe continues the speculation by making the prediction that if drugs (i.e. heroin) were made legal in the US, all adolescents would begin their regular use which would have a detrimental effect on their achievement in the future and general wellbeing (36). This argument is based on the premise that life is especially difficult for adolescents and heroin use is pleasurable, so adolescents would use it regularly to deal with life in general (37). However, like the previously discussed argument, there are no facts or evidence to prove this. In the article, de Marneffe also argues that current drug laws and policies make using illegal drugs (i.e. heroin) more difficult and more expensive, make the drugs less available, reinforce the social norms against using them, and predictably reduce rates of illegal drug use (36). Again, as with his other arguments, there are no facts or evidence supporting this premise; and, the argument is based on speculation and assumption like the othe r arguments presented in the article (36-7). History of US Drug Laws Throughout the 19th century, illicit drugs such as opium, morphine, cocaine and heroin, were legal in the United States (Echegaray 1217). In 1914, the US Congress passed the first antinarcotics act, the Harrison Act, which was a law controlling the sale and distribution of certain drugs; however, the Harrison Act did not prohibit drugs entirely (1222). The Narcotic Drugs Importation and Export Act dealt with importing and exporting drugs and it was passed in 1922 (1223). By the 1950s, a number of laws were passed that prohibited or restricted using, selling or distributing drugs (i.e. cocaine, heroin) (1225). For example, the Boggs Amendment to the Harrison Act was passed in 1951, establishing a mandatory two-year sentence for convictions of first-time drug offenders; and, the Narcotics Control Act increased penalties for drug